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1456 [Ugo Trotti in his treatise De Multiplici Ludo]
"In 1456 the Ferrara jurist Ugo Trotti, a professor of canon law, bore witness (in his De multiplici ludo) to the spread, variety and multifaceted character of card games, which could not be classified en bloc with games of luck or pure chance. Tarots in particular were included among mixed games, verging on games of skill (and not of chance), as was chess from the outset – a game always considered to
be respectable by the legal experts." [see note 105 below]
[note 105] Trotti 1456, fol. 12r: "Ex hiis infertur quid de ludo cartarum qui hodie multum frequentatur, qui tamen multiplex est et quandoque plus habet industrie quam fortune veluti si quatuor bipertiti ludunt ad triumphos, interdum eorum plus habet fortune quam industrie, ut si in 3a vel in in IIIIa vel falcinellis ludatur."
[Ortalli 1996b:199 and note 105]