created 2003 - 2005       

Document 16

This entry is of great importance for the 5x14-theory cause of the mentioned "70-cards". When we detected the existence of this document, final doubts about the theory vanished. I've had heard from "70 cards in Ferrara" before, but had imagined, that the entry was from around 1445. When it turned out, that the note was as late as 1457 all my imaginations about the state of the early Trionfi decks turned out to be true.
Also of importance is the declaration of the worth of "one ducato", which is according to the note equal to 56 soldi or 2 4/5 lira (1 lira = 20 soldi). The most worthful playing card deck in Ferrara was produced in 1423 for 40 ducatos (which should be according to the above note 112 lira). This is a horrible price in relation to that what Sagramoro got for his decks, but looks small in relation to the unbelievable high price for the Michelino deck (1500 ducatos).
This is the first (and best paid) production done by Gherardo di Andrea da Vizenza, who dominates the card production scene in Ferrara from 1457 - 1463. Gherardo is already a relatively old man in 1457, when he replaced Sagramoro, the major card producer in the Ferrarese account books from 1422 - 1456, being recorded as active as artist together with his father already in 1424. Two old men, Sagramoro and Gherardo, as the leading Trionfi card painters - this might indicate, that Trionfi cards were prefered to be painted in an oldfashioned style.
In July 1457 Galeazzo Maria Sforza (13 years old) visited Ferrara. From here he wrote a letter to his father, that they played cards and visited the tennis court (the weather was bad). The document is of some importance to the history of tennis, Galeazzo became a sponsor of the sport later. Probably the card production noted above relates to the preparations for this visit.

Ross Gregory Caldwell researched the Galeazzo visits: Pizzagalli says that Galeazzo Maria left Milan on the 19th of July. The next day (20th of July) he wrote to his father from Pavia, asking if he could take two French books with him. Then followed a two-day journey to Ferrara. He must have arrived the 22nd or 23rd of July. He stayed until September 8, so nearly seven weeks [Tra due dinastie 164-168].
The Guardaroba entries (Franceschini I,823m-s) mention a good deal of artistic preparation for Galeazzo's visit, mostly by Gerardo di Andrea da Vicenza. Two documents possibly related to his visit:

21 July, the 70 big trionfi cards (this document 16) (823m)
2 August, Petrecino's pack of trionfi cards (document 17) (823s)

The Diario Ferrarese doesn't mention this visit.

His second visit was in 1459, when Ferrara was one of the stops along the way to the congress of Mantova. Pizzagalli describes it on pp. 180-185. Accompanied by 350 horses (the Diario Ferrarese has 310), the first stop was Parma, April 9.
April 11, Modena.
April 17, Florence [Pope and cardinals are there].
May 4, leaves Florence.
May 9, Bologna.
May 17, Ferrara (Diario).
May 25, leave Ferrara.
May 27, Mantua.

A third visit is recorded in the Diario Ferrarese, on August 16, 1461. Galeazzo dines in the home of Ludovico Casella, Borso's "referendario," in the company of Ludovico Gonzaga, his son, and Duke Borso.

Well ... this entry became our personal triumphal chariot

Tennis boy, Cremona 1570

1457 [21 July – payment to Gerardo di Andrea da Vicenza]

Maestro Girardo de Andrea da Vizenza dipintore de avere adi 21 de luglio per sua fatura et spesa d'oro fino, coluri, de avere depinto para due de carte grande da trionfi, che sono carte 70 per zogo, le quale sono mese d'oro fitamente, et fate tute de coluri fini et brunide, et depinte de roverso uno paro rosa, uno paro verde. Le quale ebe Piedro de Schiveto per uxo de lo Signore ; de quale dito dimanda ducati 8 del paro, a soldi 56 per ducato, fano lire 22, soldi 8 ; et Galioto li tasa lire 28. Se n'abate soldi 2 per lira, sono 2, soldi 16; resta suo credito…L.25.4.

[Franceschini 1993 n. 823m (p. 485) ; cf. Campori 1874:10 (otherwise 127-128), and Ortalli 1996b:186]

Preliminary translation
(by Ross Gregory Caldwell)

Maestro Gerardo di Andrea da Vicenza, painter, having the 21st day of July, for his making and expense in fine gold, coloured, for having painted two packs of big triumph cards, which are 70 cards per deck, covered thickly with gold, and made entirely of colours fine and rich, and painted on the reverse one pack red, one pack green. The which had Piedro de Schiveto for the use of the Lord; the which said [Gerardo] asked 8 ducats per pack, at 56 soldi per ducat, totalling 22 lire, 8 soldi; and Galeotto the tax 28 lire. Subracting 2 soldi per lira, which is 2, 16 soldi; remains to his credit … L. 25. 4.