created since 2003       

Kaplan's representation of Playing Card history "before 1370"

Stuart Kaplan Tarot Encyclopedia I became the most distributed book about Tarot history in the 80ies of last century. In the Internet discussions about Tarot contents (starting around 1996 with the development of Internet), which presented a qualitative jump of the theme, Stuart Kaplan's book was the best known work and mostly the general base for the participants. The following is only intended as an overview for orientation, single points should be discussed in detail.

To the theme "playing cards before 1370" Stuart Kaplan reflects in his subpoint Interpolation and Translation errors, p. 31/32.: All sources are rejected in their value by Kaplan's article cause of various reasons (there are further notes of "errors" mentioned by Kaplan, which refer to later times)

In the same source Stuart Kaplan lists under the point Omissions ("Omissions from early writings support the theory that playing cards were not known at the time cited for other games"), p. 33/34: The entry from Bern 1367 (prohibition) is accepted by Kaplan I (p. 24). Kaplan presents the document at p. 25 as photo. In the time of Michael Dummett's book Game of Tarot, little later than Kaplan's work (1978), the validity of the entry is disputed between two specialists. Detlev Hoffmann in 1998 claims, that the entry is solidified and correctly dated for 1367.