(Placeholder for Michael Hurst about the 8 pawns-composition in 4 suits to present his suggestion - which I completely accept - and his translation inclusive a critique, why the text doesn't include any data trumping rules)
Michaels suggestion to the 8 pawns composition was ...
- Unter suit 1: Ackermann
- Ober suit 1: Edelman
- Unter suit 2: Wuchrer
- Ober suit 2: Pfaff
- Unter suit 3: Toypel
- Ober suit 3: Riffian
- Unter suit 4: Wirt
- Ober suit 4: Weinman
... which would create logical pairs inside the given row of the 8 figures in Ingold's passage (I declared this for an excellent observation and agree with him.
Translation next passage
Nun hat das kartenspil der unküsch fier küng gemainclich, das sind die fier ursach der unlauterkayt. Die erst ist der küng von den rossen, das ist die unlauterkayt die da kumpt von hübschhayt des leibs, und die geleichet sich dem rossen, der sein hübschhayt bald verlürt, und die pleder bald da von valend und dorent. Wa sind nun die schönen blüenden rossen? Der küng mit seinem wauppen hat under im dreyzehen karten, das sind dreyzehen sünd, die da entspringend von den andern dreyen. Der ander küng ist von der kron, und das bedüt die unküschhayt die da kumpt von zierd der hübschhayt, die da zu gelegt wird, und under der so sind auch XIII sünd. Der drit küng ist der küng von dem pfenning, und bedüt das drit das da pringt unküschhayt, das ist reichtum, und dar under sind auch die XIII sünd da mit man sündet. Der fiert küng ist der küng von den ringen, und bedüt die fierden sach der unküsch, das ist haimlichayt der stat, oder der küng von dem fingerlin, das trägt nieman denn der [37b] in besunderhayt und in haimlichhayt verbunden ist, und dar under sind auch XIII sünd.
The translation follows in smaller pieces:
|"Nun hat das kartenspil der unküsch fier küng gemainclich, das sind die fier ursach der unlauterkayt.
Now has the card play of the LUST (= unküsch or unküschhayt) 4 kings normally (gemainclich likely means "im allgemeinen" = "normally"), which are the reasons for "Unlauterkayt" (difficult to translate, I would choose "activity not according the right rule").
Commentary: So each suit is a "bad suit" in the opinion of Ingold, cause any part of the game is dedicated to the sin "LUST".
Die erst ist der küng von den rossen, das ist die unlauterkayt die da kumpt von hübschhayt des leibs, und die geleichet sich dem rossen, der sein hübschhayt bald verlürt, und die pleder bald da von valend und dorent. Wa sind nun die schönen blüenden rossen?
The first is the king of the roses, that is the "Unlauterkeyt" which comes from the beauty of the body, which is similar to the roses, who loose their beauty soon, when the leaves fall and get dry. Where are now the nice flourishing roses?
Commentary: if one looks at the 4 pairs at the Ober and Unter position (as you suggested them and as they are plausible), the description fits only to the pair "Toypel and Riffian". The exalted beauty between the 8 court cards should be the only female between them, the Toypel.
|Der küng mit seinem wauppen hat under im dreyzehen karten, das sind dreyzehen sünd, die da entspringend von den andern dreyen.
The king with his emblem (suit sign) has below him 13 cards, that are the 13 sins, which jump of (or: have their source in) the other 3.
Comment: It seems, that Ingold gives the suit of roses a central position by indicating, so that the other 3 suits are only extensions of the central motif (which should be: beauty - the attributes are crowns, money, rings, all increasing the beauty). And each card in the roses suit is related to a sin (which he later in the text explains in a longer passage in detail).
|Der ander küng ist von der kron, und das bedüt die unküschhayt die da kumpt von zierd der hübschhayt, die da zu gelegt wird, und under der so sind auch XIII sünd.
The second king is from the crown, and that means die "Unküschayt" wich comes from the "zierde" (decoration - the crown as decorative attribut) of beauty, "die da zu gelegt wird" (which is laid to the other), and below this there are also 13 sins.
Commentary: This 13 sins also find a later commentary of Ingold.
Commentary: if one looks at the 4 pairs at the Ober and Unter position (as they're are plausible suggested), one has difficulties to attribut one to the suit sign crown. The "edelman" would fit, but what is about his counterpart "ackerman"? However, the ackerman is identical to the "Pauman, der den wein pauwen sol", and it is imaginable, that the ackerman as the secret hero of this court card composition was crowned with vine-leaves in Bacchus-manner - then he would fit with the suit sign crowns.
|Der drit küng ist der küng von dem pfenning, und bedüt das drit das da pringt unküschhayt, das ist reichtum, und dar under sind auch die XIII sünd da mit man sündet.
The third king is from the pfenning (a German coin), and means the third which brings LUST, that is richness, and under this are also 13 sins, with whom one sins.
Commentary: This 13 sins do NOT find a later commentary of Ingold - which, like some other missing elements in Ingold's text, give the impression, that the original text is corrupted or shortened or that Ingold never finished his text.
Commentary: if one looks at the 4 pairs at the Ober and Unter position, the description fits only to the money-pair "Pfaff and Wuchrer".
"Der fiert küng ist der küng von den ringen, und bedüt die fierden sach der unküsch, das ist haimlichayt der stat, oder der küng von dem fingerlin, das trägt nieman denn der in besunderhayt und in haimlichhayt verbunden ist, und dar under sind auch XIII sünd."
The forth king is the king of the rings, and is the forth reason (or thing) of the LUST, that is the "Haymlichkeyt" (secrecy) of the "stat" (? "stat" according Grimm's wordbook means "quiet" or "quietness"), or the king of the "fingerlin" (should mean also "ring", perhaps it means a specified "ring of love"), which is carried by nobody else than that one, who "in Besunderhayt" (especially) and in secrecy is connected, and there are also 13 sins.
Commentary: Central theme is the ring, which manifests a secret love affair, a precise translation is difficult.
Commentary: This 13 sins also do NOT find a later commentary of Ingold.
Commentary: if one looks at the 4 pairs at the Ober and Unter position, the final pair would be Wirt and Weinman and it is hard to see an iconographically intended relation between them and the suit sign "Ring of Love". Could "rings" have a relationship to "cups" (both offer a circle form)?. When all other identifications are correct, then the rings=cups would refer to Wirt and Weinman, and both would have a splendid relationship to cups (but not to rings).
Ingold mentions (and attacks) in his text 2 deck compositions, but only one suit system:
- 1. 4 Kings + 4 Queens + 4 Maidens + number cards
- 2. 4 Kings + 8 Professions as Ober and Unter + number cards
- Suit system: Roses + Crowns + Pfennige (Coins) + Rings
Ingold's text is not completely reliable as a "correct reporter" about the games of his times, either corrupted by a later redaction, which shortened the text, or possibly by Ingold himself, who writes careless or stayed unfinished.
As the text is, it seems to the reader, as if the suit system would belong to both deck types - but this is not naturally true, considering the chaotic style of the text. It's recognizable, that the shown suits-system would build a unique form with deck type 1, King-Queen-Maiden (Maiden interpreted as maitresse), as a soft erotical composition would be harmonious to the suit signs Roses-Crowns-Coins-Rings with similar soft erotical qualities (with Roses and Rings). For Ingold this soft erotic is already enough to attack card playing.
The other composition with the 8 professions doesn't completely fit with the suits system, it makes in comparison to the above mentioned soft erotic the impression of hard core erotic connected to some sarcastic humour and some revolutionary social spirit.
- Roses = Beauty = Toypel (Unter) + Riffian (Ober)
- Crowns = Decoration = Ackermann (Unter) + Noble man (Ober)
- Pfennige = Richness = Wuchrer (Unter) + Pfaff (Ober)
- Rings (Cups) = Secrecy = Wirt (Unter) + Weinman (Ober)
The explanation somehow demands, that a suit development from cups to rings happened after a development took place, in which Wirt+Weinman as Ober+Unter-pair (and perhaps the complete Ober+Unter-sequence of Ingold's deck) already was born.
Naturally card playing took place at drinking places in the early times - various documents are known which give evidence. An involvement of persons which were connected to the inn-keeper's business seems natural, especially in connection to the suit of cups. Also naturally it were places, where occasionally Toypel and Riffian made their appearance and profession.
The by Ingold established row (Ackerman - edelman - wuchrer etc.) doesn't really work with Ingold's row, how he describes the suits. From this (Ingold's row to describe the 4 suits) would have been expectable:
- Roses = Beauty = Ackermann (Unter) + Noble man (Ober)
- Crowns = Decoration = Wuchrer (Unter) + Pfaff (Ober)
- Pfennige = Richness = Toypel (Unter) + Riffian (Ober)
- Rings (Cups) = Secrecy = Wirt (Unter) + Weinman (Ober)
Combining "Pfennige" with Toypel and Riffian seems possible and Wirt and Weinman would keep their position. But the other two pairs ... I don't get an idea in it. From this observation it seems, as if the presented suits system fits with deck type 1 (queens and maidens), but not with deck type 2 (8 professions).
The "8 professions" are an older and much used model from chess literature in 14th century before playing cards developed. The "8 professions" were variated, one cannot speak of one single model. Chess is given by historians as the second most used topic after the bible in 14th century literature, how much different models of the "8 professions" existed is impossible to estimate. I show here two, one of the first and reknown chess author in German literature, Konrad of Ammendorf from the year 1437 and that of Ingold himself in his cheess chapter to the pawns:
1. Konrad von Ammendorf 1337, Schachzabelbuch
A Swiss Benedictian monk, who wrote a chess book in the manner of Jacob de Cessolis, in which he expanded the Cessolis text to more than the double size with totally 19336 verses. His work is counted as the most popular chess book and as the first Cessolis adaptation in German language. He lived from ca 1280/90 till the mid of 14th century, had some journeys to France, Provence and Graubünden and lived at the time, when he finished his text, in Stein am Rhein near Schaffhausen (not too far away from Ingold's Strassburg).
- 1160 verses: How the game was invented combined with a teaching to the king.
- 7748 verses: texts for the officers of chess, the king, the queen, the bishops (which are judges to Konrad), the knights and the rooks (which are "Landvögte" to Konrad) combined with many teachings, lessons and legends.
- 8380 verses: a description of the specified pawns, which are presented by professions:
- h: farmer
- g: smith, bricklayer, carpenter
- f: weaver, clerks and other manual workers
- e: merchant and money-changer
- d: physician and chemist
- c: inn-keeper
- b: civil servant and administrator
- a: squanderer, player and messenger
- 862 verses (very short): The rules of the game - which are definitely only of smaller interest for the author.
The text survided in 19 manuscripts and 3 fragments. A comparition of the pawns professions to the 8 figures in the deck described by Ingold leads to four possible identifications: the h-pawn "farmer" might be Ingold's "ackermann", the "money-changer" might be Ingold's "Wuchrer", the inn-keeper is Ingold's Wirt and the "squanderer, player and messenger" might be Ingold's "edelmann" (who, according to Ingold, looses his mones to the Wuchrer, likely as aresult of too much gambling activities).
Master Ingold, Chess Chapter to the pawns
"Ich han vor gesagt von dem adel und het geren da von noch mer geschriben. So mist sich der adel under die dienstlüt, dar umb so wil ich fürbas von den dienstlüten sagen die edel sind und doch dienstlüt. Und sind auf dem spil acht venden die uns bedütend die dienstlüt, also sind an des küngs hoff achter lay dienstlüt oder amptlüt, die all mit dem küng ze veld ziehend, und die züch ich auff gab des hayligen gaists gaystlich. Der erst ist der portner, der ander ist der arzat, und hat bey im jäger, pfister, koch und des geleich, vischer und appeteger; der drit ist der kantzler und mit im die schreiber, der vierd ist der peichtiger, der fünft ist der cappelan und der almussner; der sechßt ist der panerher; (der haubtmann ist der küng selber und der ritermeister;) der sibend ist der weinschenck, der keller und der kredentzer, der achtend ist der marschalk und der wagenman und der läffel."
"I've spoken from the nobility and would have loved to speak more about them. The noble men mix" (one should add "nowadays", as Ingold describes here the social fall of the class of the knights at his time) "between the dienstlüt" (Ingold's expression for the class of the servants), therefore I will tell from the dienstlüt, which are noble, but dienstlüt. And there are in the game 8 venden" (venden is Ingold's expression for pawns) "which mean the dienstlüt, so there are at the king's court 8 different dienstlüt or amtslüt (amtslüt = persons with administrative function), which all go with the King into the field (= into militarical activities of the king), and these I list now with the blessings of the holy spirit" (? a precise translation is difficult; it seems, as if Ingold "feels inspired by the holy spirit" with his order of the pawns, which he invented himself, changing earlier order of the pawns). The first is the" (1) "portner, the second is the" (2) "arzat, und hat bey im jäger, pfister, koch und des geleich, vischer und appeteger; the third is the (3) kantzler und mit im die schreiber; the forth is the" (4) "peichtiger" (here one should note, that Ingold's gives his own profession Beichtvater at a rather important position near to the king or the queen), the fifth is the (5) capellan under der almussner; der secchst ist der" (6) "der Panerher; (the captain is the king itself and the rittmeister); der sibend ist the" (8) "weinschenk, der keller und der kredentzer, der achtend is the "marschalk und der wagenman und der läffel"
1-4 seems to the "inner functions", 5-8 the "outside functions"; following some logic the "inner functions" likely belong to the Queen's side, however, the order presented by Ammendorf gives a different impression (so I'm puzzled in this perception). 1-4 seem to mirror in their function 8-5 in reversed order, so that there is an implied pair-relation between 1-8, 2-7, 3-6 and 4-5. In the group of the "inner functions", the hierarchy seems to be 4-3-2-1 with 4 as the "highest profession", in the group of the outer functions it seems intended 5-6-7-8 with 5 as the highest ranked position (this can't be stated for the Ammendorf order; there it seems possible, that the hierarchy runs from top to below 7-1 with an 8th strange figure, the squanderer).
- 1. "portner"
- 2. "arzat, und hat bey im jäger, pfister, koch und des geleich, vischer und appeteger"
- 3. "kantzler und mit im die schreiber"
- 4. "beichtiger"
- 5. "cappelan und der almussner"
- 6. "panerher"
- 7. "weinschenck, der keller und der kredentzer"
- 8. "marschalk und der wagenman und der läffel"
- 1. Portner - somebody who guards the door
- 2. A group which is focussed on nourishment (physician, hunter, cook, fisher and chemist)
- 3. Kantzler and writer - Chancellor and clerks - administrative functions
- 4. "Beichtiger" = Beichtvater
- 5. "Cappelan"; "almussner" likely from "Almosen", - as Nr. 4 a person in service of the church, somebody collecting money for the church
- 6. "panerheer" = Bannerherr, who carries the flag - the outside mirror of Nr. 3, the chancellor
- 7. A group, that is focussed on drinking - mirrors the group at Nr. 2, which works for the nourishment
- 8. marshall, charioteer and messenger - persons, who work on the outside - likely the pawn before the rook at the king's side; I suspect "läffel" as old German expression of the "Läufer" which should mean messenger; the Hofämterspiel knows a "Renner", which seems to mean a messenger with horse. "Rennen" and "laufen" are synonym in German.
In a longer passage in Ingold's text the eight pawns are described again with more content, curiously now in a different order (which adds to the general carelessness of Ingold's text): Figure 6 becomes Nr. 4, figure 4 becomes Nr. 5 and figure 5 becomes Nr. 6. Actually the first above given ordering makes sense as a system (the pawns mirror each other in their function), the second representation seems not logical.
Comparison of the Ammendorf professions with Ingold's pawns and Ingold's card deck
Konrad of Ammendorf thinks of normal professions, Ingold follows ideas similar to that in the Hofämterspiel - that creates a major difference between both orders. The 8 court cards form also a very individual satiric order. Nonetheless there are similarities:
1. Farmer (Ammendorf) - Ackerbauer (card deck) has now become the portner, the doorkeeper, who stays at his place, like the farmer and the Ackerbauer
8. The counterpart to the farmer was in Ammerdorfs arrangement the "squanderer, player and messenger", possibly comparable to a noble man, who lost his money and social status by gambling (as it might be the case with the noble man in Ingold's card deck). Ingold now places at this position "marshall, charioteer and messenger" - so we the identical "messenger" already mentioned by Ammendorf, but also lower militarical professions, often filled in 15th century by members of the lower nobility, for whom it was necessary to earn their money by their fighting abilities.
7. Ingold presents at this position "weinschenck, der keller und der kredentzer", 3 professions conected to drinking at the courts, Ammendorf had at Position 6 (= c:) the inn-keeper, also connected to "drinking". The role of the Wirt exists also inside the card deck described by Ingolf.
5. The "Almusner" (Position 5. for Ingold) collects money for the church; Ammendorf names a "money-changer at his position 4 and the card deck knows a Wuchrer.
The others: there are smaller similarities, but the variating factor is great between the 3 compositions. Ingold in his passage above notes "die züch ich auff gab des hayligen gaists gaystlich", which I interpreted as a note of an own "heavenly inspiration", which means, Ingold announces, that he acted creative with "his" order, not following an older tradition. Similar to Ingold others interpreted chess and its correct professions according to their own imagination, likely creating a potpourri of many different presentations.
The most stable figures in pawns-professions compositions seem to have been the Wirt, the Ackermann and the degraded edelman. We detect them also in a Schachzabel manuscript of 1479 (Konstanz) as illuminations (see the pictures; actually one should compare further old chess literature to verify this; which is still not done for the moment).
Wirt, Ackerman and degraded Edelmann are just the three figures, which would - if the deciphering of the deciding passage in Ingold's text is accepted - have special roles in the reconstructed game: The Edelman as the Fool, who cannot trump, the Wirt as the lowest trump (in Tarot 1, the "magician") and the Ackermann as the "highest trump" (in Tarot 21, the "world")
If one recognizes the 8 figures of the Ingold deck as just another "8-pawns" composition, or even better, as the 8 officers of chess, then the complete intended irony of the composition becomes apparent:
- Ackermann - is a corner figure (rook)
- Weinman - knight
- Wirt - bishop
- the Riffian is the King
- the Toypel is the Queen
- Pfaff - bishop
- Wuchrer - knight
- Degraded Edelman - is a corner figure (rook)
A Riffian as the King and the Toypel as the Queen - card playing took not only place at houses made for drinking, but also in those establishments, which seved as bordells (whereby drinking, card or dice playing and bordell function were combined . We understand Ingold's exaggeration about the game - to him chess playing is a "good game" and "card playing" is a bad game. The game of LUST. And those, who enjoyed the LUST, likely had their fun about the exaggerated Ingold at their time.
The following pictures are offered and copyrighted by a page of AEIOU picture Album. They appeared in a Schachzabelbuch produced 1479 in Konstanz, likely similar to that of Ingold.
Te 3 important figures: The Ackermann appears as "Bauer", the Wirt as "Wirt" and the "degraded nobleman" as Spieler (player) - all three appear 2 times, likely for each player one; 7 other professions are shown, which probably also play at different sides - the pictures likely are not complete (we have not enough information about the text).
König - king
König schwarz - king (black)
Königin - Queen
Greis the "old" - presents the bishop
Ritter - knight
Ritter - knight
Landvogt - rook
Chess pawns professions
The most common figures
Other games than Chess; similar to Ingold
Some pictures of another Schachzabelbuch made 1464/65 are reachable at this page.
Some pictures of another Scachzabelbuch made 1464/65 are reachable at this page.
at this page.
Smith in a Cessolis-manuscript