A Trionfi Deck before the other Trionfi Decks

  • 1341: Petrarca becomes Poetus Laureatus.
  • 1346/47: Cola de Rienzo in Rome seems to raise the interest in triumphal processions. Petrarca admires Cola de Rienzo. Rienzos success endures only a short time.
  • 1348-1350: The black death takes the life of very much people and leaves the countries in a deep social and oeconomical depression.
  • Rienzo tries (with Trionfo-activities) to succeed in Rome again. The action ends in desaster (Rienzo murdered).
  • 1355-1374: Petrarca, friend of Cola de Rienzo, writes his poem Trionfi, after the black death in memory of all the better times before. It's not a good time for triumphal processions and other great festivities.
  • 1414: - 1418: A Restart in History. The Council of Constance - after nearly 50 years of Schisma - is visited by more than 100.000 visitors. The papal authority is decreased, modern developments are welcomed.
  • 1418: The Council of Constance might have raised the interest for great publical events
  • 1417 - 1425: San Bernardino preaches and his preachings get the character of great publical events
  • Suddenly - many playing cards interests in Italy; a Trionfo and a Trionfi deck
  • 1423: Imperatori deck in Ferrara
  • 1423: A 40-ducatos-deck is known from Ferrara, an unusual high prize for a playing card deck
  • 1423: Alfonso of Aragon has a sort of Trionfi activity in Naples together with queen Giovanna
  • 1424/1425: Assumed production time for the Michelino deck, it has an unbelievable high prize (1500 ducatos).
  • 1425: Trionfo of Filippo Maria Visconti, probably the Michelino deck is thought to accompany this event.
  • The special role of Alfonso - Spanish spirit in Italy 1428 and 1434: Playing card notes around Alfonso of Aragon
  • 1435: Alfonso of Aragon is prisoner of Filippo Visconti. The both play cards with each other.
  • First Revival of Filippo's idea 1439: The Council of Florence knows various great festivities with religious events.
  • 1441: The note from 1.1.1441 in Ferrara might refer to playing cards, which are projected to accompany a great publical event: Bianca Maria's marriage
  • 1441, October: the marriage 1441 of Bianca Maria Visconti and Francesco Sforza becomes a great publical event; it is assumed, that the Cary-Yale Tarocchi was produced at this time
  • 1442: Leonello is new signore in Ferrara and has a reason for a publical event, a Trionfo
  • 1442: Two notes about Trionfi decks from Ferrara. The name "Trionfi cards" appears for the first time.
  • 1443: Alfonso of Aragon has occupied Naples in 1442 and with this he has a reason for a Trionfo. The festivity is reported from the year 1443 (no playing card activity known)
  • 1445: Marriage Leonello with an illegitime daughter of Alfonso, but a Trionfi production is not known from Ferrara at this time
  • 1447: Filippo Maria Visconti dies. Milan becomes the Ambrosian Republic.
  • 1449: Marcello's letter. The Michelino deck is send to Rene d'Anjou as present to queen Isabella.
  • 1450, February: Sforza occupies Milan
  • 1450, March: Sagramoro produces in Ferrara some Trionfi decks for Leonello
  • 1450, March: Francesco Sforza has a real Trionfo in Milan; Leonello is present as a guest, probably his personal gift for the occasion are the Trionfi decks manufactured by Sagramoro
  • 1451: Trionfi card production for Borso, new signore of Ferrrara
  • 1452: Trionfo for Borso, new duke of Reggio and Modena
  • 1452: Trionfi production in Milan
  • 1453: A Trionfo for Francesco Sforza in Milan
  • 1453. Isabella of Lorraine dies. Her husband Rene appears in militaric matters in Milan. In the follow-up the diplomatic connections between Rene d'Anjou and the Sforza court are good, from 1454 - 1462 Giovanni Cossa, Rene's messenger, is variously in Milan. Did Rene give the Michelino deck back to the Sforza family?
  • 1454: Peace of Lodi, production of many Trionfi decks in Ferrara
  • 1456: Trionfi is called a good card game by Trotti
  • 1457: Galeazzo Maria Sforza (13 years old) is as guest in Ferrara. During his stay there are activities around the production of Trionfi cards (comparable to the activities at the occasion of the visit of his mother Bianca Maria in 1441. One should observe, that Trionfi decks are often produced in context with very young persons. The still honoured game of the time for serious grown-up men is still chess, playing cards seem to be suitable items for women and teenagers.
  • 1459: First (real) sign (in Bologna), that Trionfi is a card game outside of the courts
  • 1468: Picture with Apollo and Daphne for the marriage of Galeazzo Sforza and Bona of Savoia in Milan. The Daphne-theme is still new at this time, not very common, it's astonishing, that it appears twice in the Visconti family in 1424/1425 and 1468. It seems, that Galeazzo Maria knew about the Michelino deck, perhaps cause Rene d'Anjou gave the deck back to the Sforza family.

1341: Petrarca gets in Rome the
laurel of the poetus laureatus.
That leads to hundred of
love poems (Canzonieri)
to a somewhat undefined "real Laura".
Laura in Greek means Daphne.

Cola de Rienzo (modern painting)

1347: Cola de Rienzo revives
Old Roman traditions

Detail of Triumph of Death of Francesco Traini, ca. 1350

Triumph of Death
Francesco Traini, ca. 1350
after the black death 1348 - 1350

The times are bad.
No money for a Trionfo.
1354: Cola de Rienzo
gets a second chance.
He doesn't get a 3rd.
1355: Petrarca starts to write
the poem "Trionfi".

1425: Much later.
The times are better now.
Filippo Maria has a Trionfo,
probably cause he becomes
father (of Bianca Maria).
He (probably) accompanied the
festivity with the production of a
playing card deck, centered on
Greek gods and centered on the
Daphne myth.

1441: Bianca Maria marries.
Probably at this occasion the idea of
festivity playing card decks is revived.
They are called Trionfi cards now, probably
the idea is born during her stay at Ferrara
in winter 1440/1441.

1450 - 1456: Trionfi decks become popular.

1457: Galeazzo Maria Sforza at a visit in Ferrara.
He engages in card playing and tennis.
During his stay an action "painting Trionfi cards"
is documented.

Apollo with Daphne, 1468 (?)

1468: Galeazzo Maria Sforza marries Bona of Savoia.
It is assumed, that he commissioned a painting,
in which he is painted as Apollo and
Bona of Savoia as Daphne
Oldest Tarot Cards
* START * TAROT HISTORY * TAROT MUSEUM * ABOUT US * Oldest Tarot * Imperatori * Ferrara 1441 * Trionfi Documents * 5x14 * From 14 to 22 * Boiardo * Mantegna Tarocchi * Iconography * Time Table * Researchers * Locations * News * Play * Playing Cards documents * FAQ * Name Trionfi * Reviews * Free Reading * Links * Franco Pratesi (1) * Franco Pratesi (2) * Persons 1440-1462 *
The Oldest Tarot Cards
- Michelino Deck