The term "Trionfi"|
- in relation to playing cards
1423: Imperatori - first note
March 1425: Birth of Bianca Maria Visconti
May 1425: Parisina killed
June 1425: Trionfo Filippo Visconti
(Michelino Deck ?)
1438: Council in Ferrara
1439: Council in Florence
(real Trionfo - probably no cards)
Autumn 1441 Bianca Maria Visconti in Ferrara
(small Trionfo at her arrival - no cards)
14 Figure, 1.1.1441
(Marriage Trionfo projected ?)
October 1441 Marriage Bianca Maria Visconti
(Cary-Yale Tarocchi?, Marriage-Trionfo ?)
Marcello is already near to Francesco Sforza
December 1441: Leonello new Signore in Milano
01 1442/1 Ferrara/Sagramoro
(February 1442 / Trionfo projected ?)
02 1442/2 Ferrara/Kids
(small Trionfo for the kids
according to the interests
of their mother (?)
1443 Imperatori - 1st reappearance
1443 Real Trionfo in Naples
Alfonso of Aragon
(no cards known)
Pause (1443 - 1450)
August 1447: Filippo Maria Visconti dies
Decembrio is in Ferrara
1447 Decembrio writes "Vita ..."
Vita di Filippo Maria Visconti
early 1449: Marcello with Francesco Sforza
in the region of Milan
Scipio Caraffa didn't know Trionfi decks
03 1449/1 Marcello letter
25.2.1450: Francesco Sforza occupies Milan
04 1450/1 Ferrara/Sagramoro
16.3.1450 Trionfi cards are paid
25.3.1450 Leonello visits Milan
After 8 years pause suddenly Trionfi decks production in Ferrara
Imperatori - 2nd reappearance
October 1450: Leonello dies
Borso new signore in Ferrara
05 1450/2 Florence
December 1450: Trionfi allowed (Florence)
06 1450/3 Sforza letter
December 1450: Difficulties to get a Trionfi deck
07 1451/1 Ferrara/Sagramoro
Borso's Trionfo projected ?
07b 1452/1 Siena/Emperor-visit
08 1452/1 Malatesta/Sforza
The letter signals a Trionfi production in Cremona, perhaps as a preparation for a Trionfo
August 1453: Real Trionfo in Milan
The peace of Lodi is near (9th of April 1454)
Probably Borso prepares
already before some Trionfi decks
production in series from February till April
09 1454/1 Ferrara/Sagramoro
10 1454/2 Ferrara/Sagramoro
11 1454/3 Ferrara/production
12 1454/4 Ferrara/production
13 1454/5 Ferrara/production
13b 1455/1 Padua / preaching
14 1456/1 Ferrara/Trotti
Trotti's comment signals, that now Trionfi is (at least in Ferrara) a well known game.
15 1456/2 Ferrara/Sagramoro
Last Sagramoro document
16 1457/1 Ferrara/70 cards
Very important, proves the 5x14 theory
17 1457/2 Ferrara/Vicenza
18 1458/1 Ferrara/Vicenza
19 1459/1 Ferrara/production
20 1459/2 Bologna
First "real" document outside of the courts)
21 1460/1 Ferrara/Vicenza
22 1460/2 Ferrara/Vicenza
23 1460/3 Ferrara/Vicenza
24 1460/4 Ferrara/Vicenza
25 1460/5 Ferrara/Vicenza
25b 1460/6 / 1513(?) Ancona - allowance
26 1461/1 Ferrara/Vicenza
26b 1461/2 Padova / Valerio Marcello
27 1463/1 Ferrara/Vicenza
28 1463: The law, which allowed Trionfi in Florence, is repeated
Probably the appearance must be interpreted in the way, that experiments are done with the number of trumps. Possibly the begin of the end of the 5x14-structure, possibly related to the new allowance in Florence 1463.
Later Notes (not complete)
29 Mantova 1465, inventory
Minchiate (since 1466)
29b Pavia Castle Frescoes 1469
29c Ferrara/Modena Bonacossi production
relates to the Decembrio Manuscript
31 Vita di San Bernardino 1472
32 Naples 1473 (Aragon court)
33 Naples 1474 (Aragon court, Beatrice)
33b Rome 1474 - 1478 / Import from Florence
34 Milan 1475, Letter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza
34b Fabriano 1476, request for allowance
35 Bologna 1477, printed decks
36b Recanati ca. 1480
37 Naples 1482, "Cartaio" Francesco
38 French dictionary, 1482
38b Cicognara-note (? forgery)
39 Brescia, 1488 - allowance
40 Salo, 1489 - allowance
41 Bergamo 1491 - allowance
42 Letter Ippolito d'Este, 1492
43 Rene d'Anjou II, France, 1496
44 Reggio, 1500 - allowance
Artist + Persons
"Trionfi" as Cards (Documents)
|This entry is of great importance for the 5x14-theory cause of the mentioned "70-cards". When we detected the existence of this document, final doubts about the theory vanished.
I've had heard from "70 cards in Ferrara" before, but had imagined, that the entry was from around 1445. When it turned out, that the note was as late as 1457 all my imaginations about the state
of the early Trionfi decks turned out to be true.
Also of importance is the declaration of the worth of "one ducato", which is according to the note equal to 56 soldi or 2 4/5 lira (1 lira = 20 soldi).
The most worthful playing card deck in Ferrara was produced in 1423 for 40 ducatos (which should be according to the above note 112 lira). This is a horrible price in relation to that what Sagramoro got for his decks, but looks small in relation to the unbelievable high price for the Michelino deck (1500 ducatos).
This is the first (and best paid) production done by Gherardo di Andrea da Vizenza, who dominates the card production scene in Ferrara from 1457 - 1463.
Gherardo is already a relatively old man in 1457, when he replaced Sagramoro, the major card producer in the Ferrarese account books from 1422 - 1456,
being recorded as active as artist together with his father already in 1424. Two old men, Sagramoro and Gherardo, as the leading Trionfi card painters - this might indicate, that Trionfi cards were prefered to be painted in an oldfashioned style.
In July 1457 Galeazzo Maria Sforza (13 years old) visited Ferrara. From here he wrote a letter to his father,
that they played cards and visited the tennis court (the weather was bad). The document is of some importance to the history of tennis, Galeazzo became
a sponsor of the sport later. Probably the card production noted above relates to the preparations for this visit.
Ross Gregory Caldwell researched the Galeazzo visits: Pizzagalli says that Galeazzo Maria left Milan on the 19th of July.
The next day (20th of July) he wrote to his father from Pavia, asking if he could
take two French books with him. Then followed a two-day journey to Ferrara. He
must have arrived the 22nd or 23rd of July. He stayed until September
8, so nearly seven weeks [Tra due dinastie 164-168].
The Guardaroba entries (Franceschini I,823m-s) mention a good deal of
artistic preparation for Galeazzo's visit, mostly by Gerardo di
Andrea da Vicenza. Two documents possibly
related to his visit:
21 July, the 70 big trionfi cards (this document 16) (823m)
2 August, Petrecino's pack of trionfi cards (document 17) (823s)
The Diario Ferrarese doesn't mention this visit.
His second visit was in 1459, when Ferrara was one of the stops
along the way to the congress of Mantova. Pizzagalli describes it on
pp. 180-185. Accompanied by 350 horses (the Diario Ferrarese has
310), the first stop was Parma, April 9.
April 11, Modena.
April 17, Florence [Pope and cardinals are there].
May 4, leaves Florence.
May 9, Bologna.
May 17, Ferrara (Diario).
May 25, leave Ferrara.
May 27, Mantua.
A third visit is recorded in the Diario Ferrarese, on August 16,
1461. Galeazzo dines in the home of Ludovico Casella,
Borso's "referendario," in the company of Ludovico Gonzaga, his son,
and Duke Borso.
1457 [21 July – payment to Gerardo di Andrea da Vicenza]
Maestro Girardo de Andrea da Vizenza dipintore de avere adi 21 de luglio per sua fatura et spesa d'oro fino, coluri, de avere depinto para due de carte grande da trionfi, che sono carte 70 per zogo, le quale sono mese d'oro fitamente, et fate tute de coluri fini et brunide, et depinte de roverso uno paro rosa, uno paro verde. Le
quale ebe Piedro de Schiveto per uxo de lo Signore ; de quale dito dimanda ducati 8 del paro, a soldi 56 per ducato, fano lire 22, soldi 8 ; et Galioto li tasa lire 28. Se n'abate soldi 2 per lira, sono 2, soldi 16; resta suo credito…L.25.4.
[Franceschini 1993 n. 823m (p. 485) ; cf. Campori 1874:10 (otherwise 127-128), and Ortalli 1996b:186]
Maestro Gerardo di Andrea da Vicenza, painter, having the 21st day of July, for his making and expense in fine gold, coloured, for having painted two packs of big triumph cards, which are 70 cards per deck, covered thickly with gold, and made entirely of colours fine and rich, and painted on the reverse one pack red, one pack green. The which had Piedro de Schiveto for the use of the Lord; the which said [Gerardo] asked 8 ducats per pack, at 56 soldi per ducat, totalling 22 lire, 8 soldi; and Galeotto the tax 28 lire. Subracting 2 soldi per lira, which is 2, 16 soldi; remains to his credit … L. 25. 4.
(by Ross Gregory Caldwell)