The term "Trionfi"|
- in relation to playing cards
1423: Imperatori - first note
March 1425: Birth of Bianca Maria Visconti
May 1425: Parisina killed
June 1425: Trionfo Filippo Visconti
(Michelino Deck ?)
1438: Council in Ferrara
1439: Council in Florence
(real Trionfo - probably no cards)
Autumn 1441 Bianca Maria Visconti in Ferrara
(small Trionfo at her arrival - no cards)
14 Figure, 1.1.1441
(Marriage Trionfo projected ?)
October 1441 Marriage Bianca Maria Visconti
(Cary-Yale Tarocchi?, Marriage-Trionfo ?)
Marcello is already near to Francesco Sforza
December 1441: Leonello new Signore in Milano
01 1442/1 Ferrara/Sagramoro
(February 1442 / Trionfo projected ?)
02 1442/2 Ferrara/Kids
(small Trionfo for the kids
according to the interests
of their mother (?)
1443 Imperatori - 1st reappearance
1443 Real Trionfo in Naples
Alfonso of Aragon
(no cards known)
Pause (1443 - 1450)
August 1447: Filippo Maria Visconti dies
Decembrio is in Ferrara
1447 Decembrio writes "Vita ..."
Vita di Filippo Maria Visconti
early 1449: Marcello with Francesco Sforza
in the region of Milan
Scipio Caraffa didn't know Trionfi decks
03 1449/1 Marcello letter
25.2.1450: Francesco Sforza occupies Milan
04 1450/1 Ferrara/Sagramoro
16.3.1450 Trionfi cards are paid
25.3.1450 Leonello visits Milan
After 8 years pause suddenly Trionfi decks production in Ferrara
Imperatori - 2nd reappearance
October 1450: Leonello dies
Borso new signore in Ferrara
05 1450/2 Florence
December 1450: Trionfi allowed (Florence)
06 1450/3 Sforza letter
December 1450: Difficulties to get a Trionfi deck
07 1451/1 Ferrara/Sagramoro
Borso's Trionfo projected ?
07b 1452/1 Siena/Emperor-visit
08 1452/1 Malatesta/Sforza
The letter signals a Trionfi production in Cremona, perhaps as a preparation for a Trionfo
August 1453: Real Trionfo in Milan
The peace of Lodi is near (9th of April 1454)
Probably Borso prepares
already before some Trionfi decks
production in series from February till April
09 1454/1 Ferrara/Sagramoro
10 1454/2 Ferrara/Sagramoro
11 1454/3 Ferrara/production
12 1454/4 Ferrara/production
13 1454/5 Ferrara/production
13b 1455/1 Padua / preaching
14 1456/1 Ferrara/Trotti
Trotti's comment signals, that now Trionfi is (at least in Ferrara) a well known game.
15 1456/2 Ferrara/Sagramoro
Last Sagramoro document
16 1457/1 Ferrara/70 cards
Very important, proves the 5x14 theory
17 1457/2 Ferrara/Vicenza
18 1458/1 Ferrara/Vicenza
19 1459/1 Ferrara/production
20 1459/2 Bologna
First "real" document outside of the courts)
21 1460/1 Ferrara/Vicenza
22 1460/2 Ferrara/Vicenza
23 1460/3 Ferrara/Vicenza
24 1460/4 Ferrara/Vicenza
25 1460/5 Ferrara/Vicenza
25b 1460/6 / 1513(?) Ancona - allowance
26 1461/1 Ferrara/Vicenza
26b 1461/2 Padova / Valerio Marcello
27 1463/1 Ferrara/Vicenza
28 1463: The law, which allowed Trionfi in Florence, is repeated
Probably the appearance must be interpreted in the way, that experiments are done with the number of trumps. Possibly the begin of the end of the 5x14-structure, possibly related to the new allowance in Florence 1463.
Later Notes (not complete)
29 Mantova 1465, inventory
Minchiate (since 1466)
29b Pavia Castle Frescoes 1469
29c Ferrara/Modena Bonacossi production
relates to the Decembrio Manuscript
31 Vita di San Bernardino 1472
32 Naples 1473 (Aragon court)
33 Naples 1474 (Aragon court, Beatrice)
33b Rome 1474 - 1478 / Import from Florence
34 Milan 1475, Letter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza
34b Fabriano 1476, request for allowance
35 Bologna 1477, printed decks
36b Recanati ca. 1480
37 Naples 1482, "Cartaio" Francesco
38 French dictionary, 1482
38b Cicognara-note (? forgery)
39 Brescia, 1488 - allowance
40 Salo, 1489 - allowance
41 Bergamo 1491 - allowance
42 Letter Ippolito d'Este, 1492
43 Rene d'Anjou II, France, 1496
44 Reggio, 1500 - allowance
Artist + Persons
"Trionfi" as Cards (Documents)
Similar decree to that of December 1450, now together with the allowance of Ronfa and Cricce.
(Source: Franco Pratesi)
It's the first Italian note to the game Ronfa (this game is first noted in France 1414). Compare the article to Ronfa.
Interpretation of the document (stand May 2006)
Generally I see a first Trionfi card movement in the years 1441-1442 and a second phase between 1450-1454. The document of 1463 might indicate a 3rd greater phase, which finally did lead to develop Trionfi cards in mass production in the 70ies of 15th century. In the discussion I mentioned:
"When Florence made a restart in matters of Trionfi deck production 1463 and moved a little bit to mass production, then the general situation changed of course. In Ferrara the courtly production of Trionfi cards stopped 1463 ... this might indicate, that the theme has lost its exclusivity and perhaps became uninteresting for the idle duke Borso just with the popularization in Florence.
When we assume a "restarted" Trionfi deck production in Florence, we should observe, what happened in Florence just in this year:
Card playing was for young persons. The logical reason for the new production in Florence is the adolescence of Lorenzo. Pulci should be the poetical spirit behind it, but of course the more noble members of the academy are also of influence.
- Giovanni di Medici died, his brother Pietro became the new heir in th Medici house.
- The Villa in Careggi becomes the new home of the Platonic Academy.
- Lorenzo beccame 14 years old (a crucial year, he was then perceived as grown-up).
- Luigi Pulci, who in 1461 entered the service of the Medici and has strong influence on the young Lorenzo.
- Both remaining older Medici (Pietro and Cosimo) are rather sick: Cosimo will die soon. Pietro cannot move himself easily. All expectations look at the young Lorenzo.
1466: Later Pulci writes the letter to Lorenzo, in which he mentions the word Minchiate. Pulci in 2 of his poems uses words, which ironize the word Minchiate (these words and their meaning are unclear ... these words are only used by Pulci, as far the internet knows them).
I could imagine, that there were 2 (or even more) creative Florentine outputsin the time 1463 - 1466): One a little more serious and more influenced by the serious members of the Platonic academy and still called "trionfi cards" (1463), and then a next version called "Minchiate" and prefering humorous aspects and dominated by Pulci's influence (later, perhaps 1465 or 1466).
And we've the 6 cards, which are added to the Pierpont-Morgan-Bergamo-deck as another relict of the "creative time in Florence" (according to my own interpretation)."