References of Documents (old list)
composed by Lothar Teikemeier, last updated 06.12.2012

The following is a reference list used for the older installation. These references are occasionally used in the sources.

Bertoni 1917
Giuseppe Bertoni, "Poesie leggende cosumanze del medio evo", Modena, Orlandini, 1917.

Bibl. nat. lat. 8745, fol. 1r - 32v (1449)
Jacopo Antonio Marcello/Martianus de Sancto Alosio "TRACTATUS DE DEIFICATIONE SEXDECIM HEROUM"

Campori 1874
Giuseppe Campori, "Le carte da giuoco dipinte per gli Estensi nel secolo XV" Atti e memorie delle rr. Deputazioni di storia patria per le provincie modenesi e parmensi_ VII, pp. 123-132 (=pp. 1-18 in the fascicule).

Dummett 1980
Michael Dummett, "The Game of Tarot from Ferrara to Salt Lake City," London, Duckworth, 1980.

Dummett 1993
Michael Dummett, "Il Mondo e l'Angelo: i tarocchi e la loro storia", Napoli, Bibliopolis, 1993.

Franceschini 1993
Adriano Franceschini, "Artisti a Ferrara in età umanistica e rinascimentale. Testimonianze archivistiche, vol. I, Dal 1341 al 1471", Ferrara-Roma, Corbo, 1993.

Franceschini 1995
Adriano Franceschini, Artisti a Ferrara in età umanistica e rinascimentale. Testimonianze archivistiche, vol. II/1, Dal 1472 al 1492, Ferrara-Roma, Corbo, 1995.

Franceschini 1996
Adriano Franceschini, Note d'archivio sulle carte ferraresi, _Ludica_ 2, 1996:172-176

Kaplan II
Stuart Kaplan, The Encyclopedia of Tarot II, New York 1986, p. 4 - 6

Ortalli 1996a
Gherardo Ortalli, Giovanni Cagnolo e don Messore: un laboratorio per la fabbricazione dei tarocchi alla corte di Borso d'Este, _Ludica_ 2, 163-169.

Ortalli 1996b
Gherardo Ortalli, The Prince and the playing cards. The Este family and the role of courts at the time of the Kartenspiel-Invasion, Ludica_ 2, 175-205.

Pizzagalli 1988
Daniela Pizzagalli, Tra due dinastie: Bianca Maria Visconti e il ducato di Milano, Milano, Camunia, 1988.

Pratesi 1989a
Franco Pratesi: The Earliest Tarot Pack Known in The Playing Card , Vol. XVIII, No. 1, August 1989. p. 28 - 32.

Pratesi 1989b
Franco Pratesi: The Earliest Tarot Pack Known in The Playing Card, Vol. XVIII, No.2, November 1989, p. 33 - 38.

Pratesi 1990
Franco Pratesi, "Carte da gioco a Firenzo: il primo secolo (1377-1477) (Florentine cards - The First Century) in The Playing Card, XIX No. 1, August 1990, p. 7 - 17

Repeated Note:

When Ross Caldwell and me in 2003 started to collect Trionfi notes between 1442-1463, we had about 27/28 entries (which I nowadays would count as 31). The major part were the documents of Ferrara, which were collected by Gherardo Ortalli and Adriano Franceschini in the "Prince and the Playing Cards" (1996), after the base laying works of Michael Dummett and Stuart Kaplan around 1980. This collection included 2 notes about Trionfi cards in Florence, found by Franco Pratesi in his earlier work (allowances of the Trionfi game in 1450 and 1463). A graphical representation of this time (with 27 entries) shows the dominance of Ferrarese documents (in black) with a few notes only from other locations (in red; see picture to the right)

In the period 2004 till October 2011 it was possible to add 4 further notes (Siena 1452, Padova 1455, Ancona c. 1460 and Valerio Marcello c. 1460), mainly thanks to information given by Thierry Depaulis.

Franco Pratesi started his new article series in November 2011. Since then the list has gotten 67 new documents till September 2012 (65 of them found by Franco Pratesi, one, now the oldest of September 1440, by Thierry Depaulis, and another one by Veber Gulinelli, who controlled the earlier work of Franceschini and found an overlooked document) and nearly all are related to Florence or its surrounding.

A small book (118 pages) was published around Christmas 2012, Franco Pratesi: "Playing Card Trade in 15th Century Florence" as IPCS Paper No. 7 (ISSN 0305-2133). It contains some of the articles, which before had appeared at this website, those, which treat the early time of 15th century. Thierry Depaulis commented in his foreword: "This book is a landmark in the history of early playing cards in Italy".

Well, maybe not the book, but the research is clearly a landmark in various interests. For the collection of early Trionfi notes it somehow means, that we have within the year 2012 about 200 % more data for the period 1440-1462 than mankind had collected in the 200 years before.

Added later:

In August 2013 the new report of Arnold und Doris Esch: "Aus der Frühgeschichte der Spielkarte. Der Import von carte da giocare und trionfi nach Rom." in Gutenberg Jahrbuch 2013, 88. Jahrgang, p. 41-53, arrived in our redaction. It contains 106 new references to Trionfi decks, which all were found in the customs registers of the city Rome for the period 1453-1465. With this the number of all earlier Trionfi cards records has been doubled and should have reached then c. 210 (from which a few are only considered to be "Trionfi card notes" and don't contain the word "Trionfi" or something similar).


I'd started to sort the new Trionfi card documents overview in October 2012. Articles will be possibly changed according improvements in research.

Old Overview about Trionfi Card documents in 2003

Overview about Trionfi Card documents in 2013


Persons in Trionfi Card Documents 1440-1462
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Trionfi Card Persons 1440-1462

Commissioners (Trionfi cards)
Ferrara: Artists and Card Producers (Trionfi cards)

Ferrara: Traders

Florence: Artists and Card Producers (Trionfi cards and mostly also playing cards)

Florence: Artists and Card Producers (normal Playing Cards)

Florence: Trade with Trionfi and Playing Cards

Users of Playing Cards

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