Various other Trionfi card suppliers (Silk dealer)
composed by Lothar Teikemeier, last updated 06.12.2012

Dates of Trionfi Card activities

Aquired by Silk Dealers

  • 1452-06-22 Florence - Uno dipintore 12 Trionfi decks (9 Soldi)
  • 1452-11-16 Florence - Antonio vochato il Chico[?] dipintore 12 Trionfi decks (9 Soldi)
  • 1452-11-16 Florence - Antonio vochato il Chico[?] dipintore 1 Trionfi(?) deck (20 Soldi)
  • 1453-01-10 Florence - Antonio dipintore tra forzenai 12 Trionfi decks (9 Soldi)
  • 1453-08-31 Florence - Cetina(?) fa i naibi 12 Trionfi decks (9 Soldi)
  • 1455-04-02 Florence - Uno dipintore 12 Trionfi decks (totally 89 Soldi)


Source is taken from Franco Pratesi's new article series written from November 2011 till now, published here at

SOURCE 1: Silk dealer aquire decks

Quote from Franco Pratesi: "1431-1460: NAIBI ACQUIRED BY SILK-DEALERS", 20.04.2012

3.5 Minor suppliers

a. Antonio Trinchaglia[?]
This is one of the many Florentine cardmakers, "che fa i naibi", with name Antonio. He may coincide with one or more of the other makers found here and there under the same name. The name of Trinchaglia, possibly a nickname, I could not read with certainty.

b. Meo di Ghoro
Meo di Ghoro che fa i naibi is a cardmaker that supplies naibi to the silk-dealers only for a few months of 1442. I could not find his products even in other stores that I have "visited" up to now. His prices were in the high range, comparable to those of Antonio di Simone, who was apparently preferred as a regular supplier – starting from about the same time.

... [deleted passage]

d. Various suppliers
Sometimes we find cards from other suppliers, different from the "usual" cardmakers. Also a mercer (as typically Manetto d’Agnolo) could sometimes pay part of his debts with playing cards that he had acquired from elsewhere.

(a) The total recorded is L.18s.6. which would give 13s.* as average value for the three different packs. I could not find how to convincingly divide it into the three parts mentioned. Assuming 25s. for trionfi the average for grandi and mezzani would be too high at 11,08s*; more likely appear 40s., and 8,58s.*, respectively.
(b) these cards are indicated as by Paparello.

In a few cases, we find recorded "un dipintore", a painter, who evidently had some reason (or the silk-dealers had) not to record his name in the account books. In other cases, we find "un fanciullo", a boy, or "una donna" a woman; these are not exceptional entries in the books: on the contrary, it is a frequent occurrence that of "un viandante", a wayfarer, "un forestiero", a foreigner, "un amico", a friend, or similar attributes for suppliers, who are recorded in an anonymous way.

It is easy to suppose that any painter (or at least most of them) who supplies a dozen trionfi priced 9s. is the same person, even if recorded under different names.
It may be worth noting that the fraction of trionfi in the cards acquired from these scattered suppliers of the early 1450s is greater than average. This may indicate that the "regular" suppliers of the store were not able to meet the demand of the silk-dealers for this particular product, but to be sure we should find some confirmation from other sources.

REPEATED TEXT: Abbreviations:
Franco Pratesi: "The abbreviations used should already be familiar to readers of the previous notes. As for size, they are GRA or grandi, large; MEZ mezzani, middle; MZL mezzanelli, the same as mezzani, or slightly different; PIC piccoli, small. As for kind, they are SCE or scempi, single; DOP doppi, double; DOR Dorati, gilded; CAR c(h)arte, cards; FIN fini, good quality; FOR di forma, made with woodblocks; RIM rimboccati, with folded edges; TRI trionfi. The abbreviation MIX, mixed, "di più ragioni", can involve both size and kind and clearly corresponds to the most uncertain values for the prices.
The date is in the format 14yymmdd. All the prices are reduced to soldi, (s.) changing into non-existent cents their fraction in denari (d.), one of which was 1/12 of 1s. (This explains the frequent appearance of N,67 or N,33 or similar approximate values.) An asterisk indicates that the price is an average value derived from the total amount recorded; it may be present for a single pack too, in case its price has been agreed upon. There are several words that I am not sure to have read correctly and they are indicated as Name[?]."

Large text

Repeated Note:

When Ross Caldwell and me in 2003 started to collect Trionfi notes between 1442-1463, we had about 27/28 entries (which I nowadays would count as 31). The major part were the documents of Ferrara, which were collected by Gherardo Ortalli and Adriano Franceschini in the "Prince and the Playing Cards" (1996), after the base laying works of Michael Dummett and Stuart Kaplan around 1980. This collection included 2 notes about Trionfi cards in Florence, found by Franco Pratesi in his earlier work (allowances of the Trionfi game in 1450 and 1463). A graphical representation of this time (with 27 entries) shows the dominance of Ferrarese documents (in black) with a few notes only from other locations (in red; see picture to the right)

In the period 2004 till October 2011 it was possible to add 4 further notes (Siena 1452, Padova 1455, Ancona c. 1460 and Valerio Marcello c. 1460), mainly thanks to information given by Thierry Depaulis.

Franco Pratesi started his new article series in November 2011. Since then the list has gotten 67 new documents till September 2012 (65 of them found by Franco Pratesi, one, now the oldest of September 1440, by Thierry Depaulis, and another one by Veber Gulinelli, who controlled the earlier work of Franceschini and found an overlooked document) and nearly all are related to Florence or its surrounding.

A small book (118 pages) was published around Christmas 2012, Franco Pratesi: "Playing Card Trade in 15th Century Florence" as IPCS Paper No. 7 (ISSN 0305-2133). It contains some of the articles, which before had appeared at this website, those, which treat the early time of 15th century. Thierry Depaulis commented in his foreword: "This book is a landmark in the history of early playing cards in Italy".

Well, maybe not the book, but the research is clearly a landmark in various interests. For the collection of early Trionfi notes it somehow means, that we have within the year 2012 about 200 % more data for the period 1440-1462 than mankind had collected in the 200 years before.

Added later:

In August 2013 the new report of Arnold und Doris Esch: "Aus der Frühgeschichte der Spielkarte. Der Import von carte da giocare und trionfi nach Rom." in Gutenberg Jahrbuch 2013, 88. Jahrgang, p. 41-53, arrived in our redaction. It contains 106 new references to Trionfi decks, which all were found in the customs registers of the city Rome for the period 1453-1465. With this the number of all earlier Trionfi cards records has been doubled and should have reached then c. 210 (from which a few are only considered to be "Trionfi card notes" and don't contain the word "Trionfi" or something similar).


I'd started to sort the new Trionfi card documents overview in October 2012. Articles will be possibly changed according improvements in research.

Old Overview about Trionfi Card documents in 2003

Overview about Trionfi Card documents in 2013


Persons in Trionfi Card Documents 1440-1462
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Trionfi Card Persons 1440-1462

Commissioners (Trionfi cards)
Ferrara: Artists and Card Producers (Trionfi cards)

Ferrara: Traders

Florence: Artists and Card Producers (Trionfi cards and mostly also playing cards)

Florence: Artists and Card Producers (normal Playing Cards)

Florence: Trade with Trionfi and Playing Cards

Users of Playing Cards

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