Further Persons in Trionfi Documents (old list)
composed by Lothar Teikemeier, last updated 06.12.2012

The following is an old list of persons, which appear in early Trionfi card documents. It was made at the beginning of our project (c. 2003) and doesn't include persons, which appeared in documents, which were later added. Links lead to our old articles.

Artists and Persons in Trionfi-documents (1441 - 1463)

Persons in documents outside of Ferrara

With one exemption (Bianca Maria Visconti in Document B) the following persons are not refering to the well documented Trionfi situation in Ferrara. Cause the rarity these documents and the related persons are of special interest.

Burchiello, poet and barber in Florence in A
Bianca Maria Visconti (daughter of Filippo Maria Visconti) in B 08
Marcello (Jacopo Antonio Marcello, Venetian provveditore), in 03
Cichus (= Francescus Simonetta, chief secretary of Francesco Sforza) in 06
Tristano Sforza (son of Francesco Sforza, marries later Beatrice, girlfriend of Bianca Maria Visconti in 1441 in Ferrara) in 06
Francesco Sforza (condottieri, duke of Milano 1450 - 1466) in 06 08
Antonio Trecho (treasurer of Francesco Sforza) appears in dokument 06
Sigismondo Malatesta (condottieri, Lord of Rimini) appears in dokument 08

Ferrarese Documents (main persons)

In the documents usually three roles appear: The commissioner, the tarot painter and the person, who administrated the payments. All 3 roles are mainly taken by 2 persons, Borso follows Leonello in the role of the commissioner (1450), Gherardo da Vicenza replaces Sagramoro as the major painter (1456/1457), Galioto de l'Assasino is exchanged by Piedro de Schieveto in the administrative function.

Leonello d'Este (refered to with "our Lord", reigned 1441 - 1450) in 01 02
Galioto de l'Asassino (chamberlain of Leonello d'Este, active till 1457) in 01 04 07 12 16 17                          
Sagramoro (Jacopo de Sagramoro), the first Trionfi-painter, active till 1456) in B 01 04 07 09 10 15 18

Borso d'Este (refered to with "illustrious Lord" etc., reigned 1450 - 1471) in 07 09 10 11 12 15 16 17 19 21 23 24 25 27
Piedro de Schieveto (gets the role of Galioto, active since 1454) in 10 15 16 18 21 23 24 25 26
Gerardo di Andrea da Vicenza (active as Trionfi painter since 1457) in 16 17 18 21 22 23 24 25 26 27  

Ferrarese Documents (minor persons with special function)

Sigismondo d'Este (9-years-old brother of Ercole and Leonello d'Este), 1442, in 02
Ercole d'Este (refered to as Messer Erchules, 11-years-old brother of Leonello, later duke of Ferrara), 1442, in 02
Burdochi, merchant from Bologna) 1442, in 02
Iacomo guerzo (Iacomo "cross-eyed, servant) 1442, in 02
Nicolo (Maestro Nicolo) 1454, in 10
Messore (Don Messore, 1454, painted serial Trionfi cards) in 11 12
Obizzo the Saracen, 1454 (merchant) in 11
Giovanni de Lazzora 1454 (painted serial Trionfi cards) in 12 13
Ugo Trotti (Ferrarese jurist, 1456, a professor of canon law) in 14
Giovanni de Romio, 1456, in 15
Petrecino (page of the Lord, experimented with painting Trionfi cards), 1457, in 17
Anselino di Salimbeni, 1459, in 19
Piero Andrea da le Fenestre, 1459, in 19
Giovanni Antonio di Dischalzi, 1460, in 21
Polismagna (translator of Decembrio's Vita de Filippo Maria Visconti ), in 28

Repeated Note:

When Ross Caldwell and me in 2003 started to collect Trionfi notes between 1442-1463, we had about 27/28 entries (which I nowadays would count as 31). The major part were the documents of Ferrara, which were collected by Gherardo Ortalli and Adriano Franceschini in the "Prince and the Playing Cards" (1996), after the base laying works of Michael Dummett and Stuart Kaplan around 1980. This collection included 2 notes about Trionfi cards in Florence, found by Franco Pratesi in his earlier work (allowances of the Trionfi game in 1450 and 1463). A graphical representation of this time (with 27 entries) shows the dominance of Ferrarese documents (in black) with a few notes only from other locations (in red; see picture to the right)

In the period 2004 till October 2011 it was possible to add 4 further notes (Siena 1452, Padova 1455, Ancona c. 1460 and Valerio Marcello c. 1460), mainly thanks to information given by Thierry Depaulis.

Franco Pratesi started his new article series in November 2011. Since then the list has gotten 67 new documents till September 2012 (65 of them found by Franco Pratesi, one, now the oldest of September 1440, by Thierry Depaulis, and another one by Veber Gulinelli, who controlled the earlier work of Franceschini and found an overlooked document) and nearly all are related to Florence or its surrounding.

A small book (118 pages) was published around Christmas 2012, Franco Pratesi: "Playing Card Trade in 15th Century Florence" as IPCS Paper No. 7 (ISSN 0305-2133). It contains some of the articles, which before had appeared at this website, those, which treat the early time of 15th century. Thierry Depaulis commented in his foreword: "This book is a landmark in the history of early playing cards in Italy".

Well, maybe not the book, but the research is clearly a landmark in various interests. For the collection of early Trionfi notes it somehow means, that we have within the year 2012 about 200 % more data for the period 1440-1462 than mankind had collected in the 200 years before.

Added later:

In August 2013 the new report of Arnold und Doris Esch: "Aus der Frühgeschichte der Spielkarte. Der Import von carte da giocare und trionfi nach Rom." in Gutenberg Jahrbuch 2013, 88. Jahrgang, p. 41-53, arrived in our redaction. It contains 106 new references to Trionfi decks, which all were found in the customs registers of the city Rome for the period 1453-1465. With this the number of all earlier Trionfi cards records has been doubled and should have reached then c. 210 (from which a few are only considered to be "Trionfi card notes" and don't contain the word "Trionfi" or something similar).


I'd started to sort the new Trionfi card documents overview in October 2012. Articles will be possibly changed according improvements in research.

Old Overview about Trionfi Card documents in 2003

Overview about Trionfi Card documents in 2013


Persons in Trionfi Card Documents 1440-1462
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Trionfi Card Persons 1440-1462

Commissioners (Trionfi cards)
Ferrara: Artists and Card Producers (Trionfi cards)

Ferrara: Traders

Florence: Artists and Card Producers (Trionfi cards and mostly also playing cards)

Florence: Artists and Card Producers (normal Playing Cards)

Florence: Trade with Trionfi and Playing Cards

Users of Playing Cards

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